The analysis of verbal interactions occurring during consultation (2023)

Cited by (100)

  • As we coach, so shall we consult: A perspective on coaching research in education

    2023, Journal of School Psychology

    In taking stock of educational coaching research, I consider the extant literature and content of four articles comprising a special issue of the Journal of School Psychology (viz., Glover et al., 2022; Pas et al., 2022; Pianta et al., 2022; Reddy et al., 2022). Before reviewing these specific articles, the thesis offered for the broader field is that without the solid foundation afforded by the school consultation literature, the science of educational coaching would not be as advanced as it is today. Following a description of each study and comparisons between/among them, I consider unique and shared aspects of consultation and educational coaching. The article concludes with four proposed directions for future coaching research based on prior consultation research: (a) documenting coaching procedural integrity and intervention fidelity/integrity to an equal degree, (b) changing teacher behavior utilizing social influence/behavior change frameworks, (c) incorporating greater use of technology (i.e., telecoaching), and (d) moving toward the concept of prescriptive coaching.

  • A comparison of problem identification interviews conducted face-to-face and via videoconferencing using the consultation analysis record

    2017, Journal of School Psychology

    Citation Excerpt :

    Similar to the PII, there are no technical adequacy data available for CPI on the PII, but CPI has been commonly used in consultation research and can be scored reliably (cf. Noell, 2008). We analyzed verbalizations made by the consultant and teacher participants during the PIIs using the CAR (Bergan & Kratochwill, 1990; Bergan & Tombari, 1975). The CAR is a direct measure of verbal behavior that provides a coder the opportunity to categorize specific types of verbalizations spoken during each interview in problem-solving consultation.

    School psychologists who experience challenges delivering face-to-face consultation may utilize videoconferencing to facilitate their consultation activities. Videoconferencing has been found to be an effective method of service delivery in related fields and emerging research suggests that it may be effective for providing teacher training and support in school settings. In this exploratory investigation, we used the Consultation Analysis Record (Bergan & Tombari, 1975) and its four indices to assess the effectiveness of conducting problem identification interviews via videoconferencing versus face-to-face. Overall, findings indicated significant differences across these two conditions, with videoconference interviews coded as having higher indices of content relevance, process effectiveness, and message control, but lower content focus, compared to face-to-face interviews. As these indices have been positively associated with favorable consultation outcomes, the results provide initial support for the effectiveness of consultation delivered via videoconferencing.

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  • Journal article citation classics in school psychology: Analysis of the most cited articles in five school psychology journals

    2011, Journal of School Psychology

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the top 100 most highly cited articles of all time as well as the 25 most highly cited articles of the last decade from within 5 school psychology journals: Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology International, School Psychology Quarterly, and School Psychology Review. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database was utilized to identify citation counts for each article appearing in these journals. Coding schemes were used to identify article type and content area. The top 10 most highly cited articles of all time as well as the top 10 most highly cited articles of the past decade are detailed, and general patterns found across these articles are discussed. Implications for reviewing manuscripts that are likely to become highly cited articles and for authoring a highly cited article are offered.

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Copyright © 1975 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


What are interaction patterns in psychology? ›

Patterns of interaction theory directs social workers' attention to the relations between structures (psychological and social), and actions: the crossroads of continuity and change.

What are the actions of verbal and nonverbal communication? ›

Verbal communication is using speech or spoken word to exchange information, emotions, and thoughts. Conversely, non-verbal communication is conveying and exchanging messages without the use of spoken words.

How do you approach a patient with a difficult diagnosis? ›

Explain the difficulty and try to find common ground

The patient needs to have confidence and actually recognise that you are listening to them. For example, you can show understanding towards the patient's anxieties and worries, and reflect this understanding back to the patient.

What are the 4 styles of interaction? ›

There are four main styles of communication: passive, aggressive, passive-aggressive, and assertive.

What are the four types of interaction? ›

What Are The Types Of Interactions Between Organisms?
  • Competition & Predation.
  • Commensalism.
  • Parasitism.
  • Mutualism.
  • Amensalism.

What are the 4 types of verbal communication? ›

Four Types of Verbal Communication
  • Intrapersonal Communication. This form of communication is extremely private and restricted to ourselves. ...
  • Interpersonal Communication. This form of communication takes place between two individuals and is thus a one-on-one conversation. ...
  • Small Group Communication. ...
  • Public Communication.

What are the four 4 functions of verbal communication? ›

Our existence is intimately tied to the communication we use, and verbal communication serves many functions in our daily lives. We use verbal communication to define reality, organize, think, and shape attitudes.

What are the three major factors that affect verbal communication? ›

The three components of a communication, from a pragmatic point of view, are:
  • Locution--the semantic or literal significance of the utterance;
  • Illocution--the intention of the speaker; and.
  • Perlocution--how it was received by the listener.

How do you provide support to a patient who is struggling with a difficult decision? ›

Here are some ways you can help patients who are facing difficult and stressful choices.
  1. Appreciate that not everyone has a decisional conflict. ...
  2. Present information in ways patients can understand. ...
  3. Acknowledge the importance of feelings and values. ...
  4. Develop decision-making expertise.
Apr 1, 2004

How do you communicate effectively with patients? ›

  1. Be attentive. “Listen completely and attentively. ...
  2. Ask open questions. ...
  3. Be curious. ...
  4. Summarise throughout. ...
  5. Involve friends and family. ...
  6. Use the right tone. ...
  7. Be aware of your patient's situation. ...
  8. Get help from colleagues.
Jan 9, 2020

What is the best approach to dealing with difficult patients? ›

Dealing with an aggressive patient takes care, judgement and self-control.
  • Remain calm, listen to what they are saying, ask open-ended questions.
  • Reassure them and acknowledge their grievances.
  • Provide them with an opportunity to explain what has angered them. ...
  • Maintain eye contact, but not prolonged.
Jan 22, 2015

What are the 5 patterns of interaction? ›

There are five common forms of social interaction— exchange, competition, conflict, cooperation, and accommodation.

What are the three methods of interaction? ›

Instructional design strategies for online learning have typically considered three main types of interaction: learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction and learner-learner interaction (Moore, 1989).

What are the 3 types of interaction? ›

Moore (1989) identified three types of interactions that are necessary in distance learning classrooms:
  • Learner-Content Interaction.
  • Learner-Learner Interaction.
  • Learner-Instructor Interaction.
Dec 3, 2020

What is an example of an interaction? ›

Interaction comes from Latin inter meaning "between," and ago meaning "to do" or "to act" — any “action between” is considered an interaction, like the interaction between a teacher and a student, two countries, or even baking soda and vinegar (boom!).

What are different interaction techniques? ›

Interaction techniques essentially involve data entry and manipulation, and thus place greater emphasis on input than output. Output is merely used to convey affordances and provide user feedback. The use of the term input technique further reinforces the central role of input.

What are the four main components of interaction? ›

The Interaction Framework consists of four basic elements:
  • Interaction.
  • Interaction. xml.
  • Interaction Manager component.
  • Activity component.

What are the 5 elements of verbal communication? ›

There are five elements in the process: The sender; the receiver; the message; the medium; and internal and external static.

What are 5 examples of verbal? ›

43 Examples of Verbal Communication
Active SilenceArguing
Telephone CallsTelevision Commercials
VideoVideo Game Audio
17 more rows
Jun 3, 2021

What is effective verbal communication skills? ›

Examples of effective verbal communication skills include: Active listening. Asking for clarification. Asking open-ended questions to gain insights. Recognizing and responding to nonverbal cues.

What are examples of verbal communication? ›

Some examples of verbal communication include an email, a phone call, and a face-to-face meeting. These examples differ from waving at a person, which is a form of nonverbal communication.

What are the 3 pillars of verbal communication? ›

These factors are formally known as Aristotle's Rhetorical Proofs; Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. In layperson's terms, they translate to Trust, Emotions, and Reason. These are the Three Pillars of Exceptional Communication.

How do you handle a difficult patient answer? ›

How to deal with a difficult patient
  1. Create a suitable environment. ...
  2. Listen carefully. ...
  3. Give an empathetic response. ...
  4. Identify the cause of the problem. ...
  5. Ask for help. ...
  6. Repair the relationship. ...
  7. Maintain professionalism. ...
  8. Use appropriate nonverbal communication.
Mar 10, 2023

How do you communicate with difficult decisions? ›

It's a tough task, so here are nine steps to communicating business decisions you don't agree with.
  1. Prepare yourself. ...
  2. Maintain respect. ...
  3. Be specific. ...
  4. Don't send mixed messages. ...
  5. Put yourself in your team's shoes. ...
  6. Remember your remote employees. ...
  7. Allow for venting, not debate. ...
  8. Set clear expectations.

How do you communicate with patients who may have communication difficulties? ›

  1. Be patient – give the other person more time.
  2. Check you have their attention before talking.
  3. Reduce background noise and distractions.
  4. Use short sentences and familiar words -
  5. emphasise the key word or phrase.
  6. Speak clearly and slowly and use an appropriate.
  7. tone of voice.
  8. Check hearing aids and glasses are being worn.

How can I improve my consultation skills? ›

This article offers suggestions for further developing consultation skills.
  1. Self-evaluation. ...
  2. Peer review. ...
  3. Self-directed study. ...
  4. Environment. ...
  5. Questioning skills. ...
  6. Listening skills. ...
  7. Giving information. ...
  8. Non-verbal communication skills.
Jan 21, 2013

Why is communication important in consultations? ›

When people communicate effectively, it is easier to discuss important information, share concerns or ask for help. There is a better understanding of someone else's perspective and the situation, leading to better decision making and more sustainable solutions to problems.

How do you manage patients with challenging behavior? ›

11 tips for dealing with challenging behaviours
  1. Know your patient's history and whether they have a previous record of aggression or violence, or drug and alcohol use.
  2. Observe the patient's body language and their demeanour with others before engaging with them. ...
  3. Know your exit points and stay close to them.
Oct 2, 2018

How do you interact with patients to establish trust? ›

Showing respect and caring

Being compassionate, spending appropriate time with patients, demonstrating active listening, and helping to advise and resolve the patient's problems will all contribute to building a trusting, respectful relationship.

How do you set boundaries with difficult patients? ›

In this article, you can learn how to cope with difficult patients by following these six tips:
  1. Try not to get defensive.
  2. Be mindful of your body language.
  3. Acknowledge patients' feelings.
  4. Open the lines of communication.
  5. Set healthy boundaries.
  6. Offer to find additional help.
Mar 31, 2022

What is an example of interaction pattern? ›

For example, in a guessing game: the students think of questions and the teacher responds; but the teacher decides who asks. The students debate a topic or do a language task as a class; the teacher may intervene occasionally, to stimulate participation or to monitor.

What are patterns of interaction? ›

Patterns of interaction, or interaction patterns, as the name says, are the different possibilities in which students can interact with each other and with the teacher in the classroom.

What are the five patterns of interaction explain? ›

They are exchange, competition, cooperation, conflict, and coercion. Each of these is used in certain contexts and avoided in others. The most common form of social interaction is the exchange, in which information is simply transferred between the parties involved.

What are the three main types of interaction? ›

Interspecies interactions can be broken into three main categories: competition, predation, and symbiosis. Let's take a closer look at each.

What are the three types of interaction? ›

Ensure high levels of all three types of interaction:
  • 1) Between Learner-Learner.
  • 2) Between Learner-Instructor.
  • 3) Between Learner-Content.

What are the three styles of interaction? ›

Instructional design strategies for online learning have typically considered three main types of interaction: learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction and learner-learner interaction (Moore, 1989).

What are interaction patterns in communication? ›

Communication processes and interaction patterns are fundamental group dynamics. They are the components of social interactions that influence the behavior and attitudes of group members. As a process, communication involves the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver.

What are different patterns of behavior? ›

Different types of behavioural patterns

Codependency traits. Quick tempered. Acting on impulse. Self-sabotage. Being attracted to the same sort of person each time.

What are social interaction patterns? ›

 There are five patterns of social interaction: exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict, and coercion.

What are the six levels of interaction? ›

The Six Components of Social Interactions: Actor, Partner, Relation, Activities, Context, and Evaluation.


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